مدرسة علا الألكترونية

توجيهية تربوية تعليمية
 
الرئيسيةاليوميةس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
مدرسة علا الألكترونية ترحب بكم

شاطر | 
 

  +مراجعة عامةPresent continuous

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 326
نقاط : 953
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/02/2012

مُساهمةموضوع: +مراجعة عامةPresent continuous   الأحد أبريل 22, 2012 8:10 pm



Present continuous

[color=red] something = I’m in the middle of doing it; I’ve started doing it and I haven’t finished yet:
• Please don’t make so much noise. I’m trying to work. (not I try)
• ‘Where’s Mark?’ ‘He’s having a shower.’ (not He has a shower)
• Let’s go out now. It isn’t raining any more. (not It doesn’t rain)
• (at a party) Hello, Jane. Are you enjoying the party? (not Do you enjoy)
• What’s all that noise? What’s going on? (= What’s happening?)
The action is not necessarily happening at the time of speaking. For example:
Steve is talking to a friend on the phone. He says:
I’m reading really good book at the moment.
It’s about a man who ...
Steve is not reading the book at the time of speaking.
He means that he has started it, but has not finished it yet.
He is in the middle of reading it.
Some more examples:
• Kate wants to work in Italy, so she’s learning Italian. (but perhaps she isn’t learning Italian at the time of speaking)
• Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope to finish it next summer.
C
You can use the present continuous with today / this week / this year etc. (periods around now):
• A: You’re working hard today. (not You work hard today)
B: Yes, I have a lot to do.
• The company I work for isn’t doing so well this year.
D
We use the present continuous when we talk about changes happening around now, especially with these verbs:
get change become increase rise fall grow improve begin start
• Is your English getting better? (not Does your English get better)
• The population of the world is increasing very fast. (not increases)
• At first I didn’t like my job, but I’m beginning to enjoy it now. (not I begin)

.......................................................................................
Present simple (I do) A Study this example situation:
Alex is a bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep.
He is not driving a bus. (He is asleep.)
but He drives a bus. (He is a bus driver.)
Drive(s)/work(s)/do(es) etc. is the present simple:
I/we/you/they drive/work/do etc.
he/she/it drives/works/does etc.

..................................................................
We use the present simple to talk about things in general. We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general:


Nurses look after patients in hospitals.
I usually go away at weekends.
The earth goes round the sun.
The cafe opens at 7.30 in the morning.
Remember:
I work ... but He works ... They teach ... but My sister teaches


The Parts of Speech



Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection.
Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word's part of speech can change from one sentence to the next, and following them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by an exercise.

Books are made of ink, paper, and glue.
In this sentence, "books" is a noun, the subject of the sentence.

Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets.
Here "books" is a verb, and its subject is "Bridget."

We walk down the street.
In this sentence, "walk" is a verb, and its subject is the pronoun "we."

The mail carrier stood on the walk.
In this example, "walk" is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase describing where the mail carrier stood.

The town decided to build a new jail.
Here "jail" is a noun, which is the object of the infinitive phrase "to build."

The sheriff told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail us.
Here "jail" is part of the compound verb "would jail."

They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.
In this sentence, "cries" is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb "heard."

The baby cries all night long and all day long.
But here "cries" is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the baby.
The next few sections explain each of the parts of speech in detail. When you have finished, you might want to test yourself by trying the exercise.


What is a Verb?



The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.
In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb is highlighted:

Dracula bites his victims on the neck.
The verb "bites" describes the action Dracula takes.

In early October, Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs.
Here the compound verb "will plant" describes an action that will take place in the future.

My first teacher was Miss Crawford, but I remember the janitor Mr. Weatherbee more vividly.
In this sentence, the verb "was" (the simple past tense of "is") identifies a particular person and the verb "remembered" describes a mental action.

Karl Creelman bicycled around the world in 1899, but his diaries and his bicycle were destroyed.
In this sentence, the compound verb "were destroyed" describes an action which took place in the past.


What is a Noun?



A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns:

Late last year our neighbours bought a goat.
Portia White was an opera singer.
The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes.
According to Plutarch, the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C.
Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving.
A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.


What is a Pronoun?



A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.


What Is An Adjective?



An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:

The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops.
Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper.
The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.
The coal mines are dark and dank.
Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music.
A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.
The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence

My husband knits intricately patterned mittens.
for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned."
Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence

Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow.
for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles.
Grammarians also consider articles ("the," "a," "an") to be adjectives


What is an Adverb?



An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.
In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb:

The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.
In this sentence, the adverb "quickly" modifies the verb "made" and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed.

The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.
Similarly in this sentence, the adverb "patiently" modifies the verb "waited" and describes the manner in which the midwives waited.

The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.
In this sentence the adverb "boldly" modifies the adjective "spoken."

We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously.
Here the adverb "more" modifies the adverb "expeditiously."

Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.
In this example, the adverb "unfortunately" modifies the entire sentence.


What is a Preposition?



A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:

The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without


What is a Conjunction?



You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example:

I ate the pizza and the pasta.
Call the movers when you are ready.
Co-ordinating Conjunctions


You use a co-ordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a co-ordinating conjunction:

Lilacs and violets are usually purple.
In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns.

This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West.
In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses.

Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.
Here the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends."


Review: Parts of Speech



Identify the part of speech of the highlighted word in each of the following sentences:





The clown chased a dog around the ring and then fell flat on her face.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



The geese indolently waddled across the intersection.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Yikes! I'm late for class.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Bruno's shabby thesaurus tumbled out of the book bag when the bus suddenly pulled out into traffic.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Mr. Frederick angrily stamped out the fire that the local hooligans had started on his verandah.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Later that summer, she asked herself, "What was I thinking of?"

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



She thought that the twenty zucchini plants would not be enough so she planted another ten.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Although she gave hundreds of zucchini away, the enormous mound left over frightened her.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Everywhere she went, she talked about the prolific veggies.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



The manager confidently made his presentation to the board of directors.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Frankenstein is the name of the scientist, not the monster.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Her greatest fear is that the world will end before she finds a comfortable pair of panty-hose.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



That suitcase is hers.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Everyone in the room cheered when the announcement was made.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



The sun was shining as we set out for our first winter camping trip.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



Dust covered every surface in the locked bedroom.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



The census taker knocked loudly on all the doors but nobody was home.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection



They wondered if there truly was honour among thieves.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection




Exciting new products and effective marketing strategies will guarantee the company's success.

Verb
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection

The Parts of the Sentence



The parts of the sentence are a set of terms for describing how people construct sentences from smaller pieces. There is not a direct correspondence between the parts of the sentence and the parts of speech -- the subject of a sentence, for example, could be a noun, a pronoun, or even an entire phrase or clause. Like the parts of speech, however, the parts of the sentence form part of the basic vocabulary of grammar, and it is important that you take some time to learn and understand them.


Subject and Predicate



Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about the subject. In the following sentences, the predicate is enclosed in braces ({}), while the subject is highlighted.

Judy {runs}.
Judy and her dog {run on the beach every morning}.
To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject.

The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn.
The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience did. "The audience" is the subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on to relate something about the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn."
Unusual Sentences


Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from conventional sentences in that their subject, which is always "you," is understood rather than expressed.

Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.")
Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to be." In such sentences, "there" is not the subject; it merely signals that the true subject will soon follow.

There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning.
If you ask who? or what? before the verb ("were cowering"), the answer is "three stray kittens," the correct subject.
Simple Subject and Simple Predicate


Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example:

A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger.
The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperoni pizza" -- modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.
Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the sentence.
A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -- as in these examples:

Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls.
Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there.
The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired").


Objects and Complements



Objects


A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. Two kinds of objects follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects. To determine if a verb has a direct object, isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing "whom?" or "what?" after it. The answer, if there is one, is the direct object:

Direct Object
The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche.
Direct Object
Her secret admirer gave her a bouquet of flowers.
The second sentence above also contains an indirect object. An indirect object (which, like a direct object, is always a noun or pronoun) is, in a sense, the recipient of the direct object. To determine if a verb has an indirect object, isolate the verb and ask to whom?, to what?, for whom?, or for what? after it. The answer is the indirect object.
Not all verbs are followed by objects. Consider the verbs in the following sentences:

The guest speaker rose from her chair to protest.
After work, Randy usually jogs around the canal


Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


Verbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by objects are called intransitive verbs.
Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs, depending on the context:

Direct Object
I hope the Senators win the next game.
No Direct Object
Did we win?
Subject Complements


In addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb, there is a third kind of verb called a linking verb. The word (or phrase) which follows a linking verb is called not an object, but a subject complement.
The most common linking verb is "be." Other linking verbs are "become," "seem," "appear," "feel," "grow," "look," "smell," "taste," and "sound," among others. Note that some of these are sometimes linking verbs, sometimes transitive verbs, or sometimes intransitive verbs, depending on how you use them:

Linking verb with subject complement
He was a radiologist before he became a full-time yoga instructor.
Linking verb with subject complement
Your homemade chili smells delicious.
Transitive verb with direct object
I can't smell anything with this terrible cold.
Intransitive verb with no object
The interior of the beautiful new Buick smells strongly of fish.
Note that a subject complement can be either a noun ("radiologist", "instructor") or an adjective ("delicious").


Object Complements


(by David Megginson)


An object complement is similar to a subject complement, except that (obviously) it modifies an object rather than a subject. Consider this example of a subject complement:

The driver seems tired.
In this case, as explained above, the adjective "tired" modifies the noun "driver," which is the subject of the sentence.
Sometimes, however, the noun will be the object, as in the following example:

I consider the driver tired.
In this case, the noun "driver" is the direct object of the verb "consider," but the adjective "tired" is still acting as its complement.
In general, verbs which have to do with perceiving, judging, or changing something can cause their direct objects to take an object complement:

Paint it black.

The judge ruled her out of order.

I saw the Prime Minister sleeping.
In every case, you could reconstruct the last part of the sentence into a sentence of its own using a subject complement: "it is black," "she is out of order," "the Prime Minister is sleeping."


Review: the Predicate



Now, using the same sentences, identify the predicate.




His terror of spiders kept him out of the dark basement.

Answer




There will be three concerts in the arts centre tonight.

Answer




Would you willingly exchange half your intelligence for one million dollars?

Answer




Despite the storm's destructiveness, the ship, with its crew of amateurs, might have survived in more experienced hands.

Answer




After the movie, Emma and her brother bought a birthday present for their mother.





Review: Parts of the Sentence



Identify the hilighted word in each of the sentences below as a simple subject, a verb, a direct object, an indirect object, or a subject complement.




The old house on the hill gave Leonora chills and conjured up images of ghosts and monsters and other unknown beings.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




Next to the china cabinet, Mrs. Wilkes placed a polished side table and an antique jug.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




Despite winning the lottery last week, my cousin still seems unhappy.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




They gave the university a large endowment for the scholarship fund.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




Some experts believe it is easy to overstate the role that genes and heredity play in determining a person's predisposition to alcoholism.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




After the luncheon buffet, she grew drowsy and decided to take a nap.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




I don't know how you can understand anything that professor says.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




There were no credits after the movie.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




His deaf aunt will be going to the symphony next week.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement




The company has been mailing George CD catalogues ever since he bought his stereo.

Simple Subject
Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement


Punctuation

The following sections will help you understand and use different types of punctuation more effectively in your writing. This chapter begins with the comma, the punctuation mark which usually causes writers the most trouble, before turning to other types of punctuation

The Comma




Comma usage is in some respects a question of personal writing style: some writers use commas liberally, while others prefer to use them sparingly. Most modern North American style guides now recommend using fewer commas rather than more, so when faced with the option of using a comma or not, you may find it wise to refrain.
For instance, the use of a comma before the "and" in a series is usually optional, and many writers choose to eliminate it, provided there is no danger of misreading:

We bought scarves, mittens and sweaters before leaving for Iceland. (comma unnecessary before "and")
We ate apples, plums, and strawberry and kiwi compote. (comma needed before "and" for clarity)




Comma Usage



Use a comma before a co-ordinating conjunction that joins independent clauses (unless the independent clauses are very short):

I wrapped the fresh fish in three layers of newspaper, but my van still smelled like trout for the next week. (commas with two independent clauses)
She invited him to her party and he accepted. (comma unnecessary with short clauses)
Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause and, often, after an introductory phrase (unless the phrase is very short):

After the hospital had completed its fund-raising campaign, an anonymous donor contributed an additional $10,000. (after introductory adverb clause)
From the east wall to the west, her cottage measures twenty feet. (after introductory prepositional phrase)
In the bottom drawer you will find some pink spandex tights. (no comma with short, closely related phrase)
Use a comma to separate items in a series:

Playing in a band can be exciting, but many people do not realize the hardships involved: constant rehearsals, playing until 2 a.m., handling drunken audience members, and transporting heavy equipment to and from gigs. (the comma preceding "and" is optional unless needed to prevent misreading)
Use commas to set off non-restrictive elements and other parenthetical elements. A non-restrictive modifier is a phrase or clause that does not restrict or limit the meaning of the word it is modifying. It is, in a sense, interrupting material that adds extra information to a sentence. Even though removing the non-restrictive element would result in some loss of meaning, the sentence would still make sense without it. You should usually set off non-restrictive elements with commas:

The people of Haiti, who for decades have lived with grinding poverty and mind-numbing violence, are unfamiliar with the workings of a true democracy. A restrictive modifier is a phrase or clause that limits the meaning of what it modifies and is essential to the basic idea expressed in the sentence. You should not set off restrictive elements with commas:

Those residents of Ottawa who do not hold secure, well-paying jobs must resent the common portrayal of the city as a land of opportunity. Note that you can use two other punctuation marks to set off non-restrictive elements or other parenthetical information: parentheses and dashes. Enclosing parenthetical information in parentheses reduces the importance of that information:

Mr. Grundy's driving record (with one small exception) was exemplary.
Placing parenthetical information between dashes has the opposite effect: it emphasises the material:

Mr. Grundy's driving record -- with one exception -- was exemplary. Nevertheless, you should usually set off parenthetical information with commas.
منقول
الاحباب الاعزاء نرجو ان تعم الفائدة
المرجع في هذه المادة العلمية هو

Wall street Institute
(فخرالدين عبدالله مصعب )
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://se-ola.sudanforums.net
 
+مراجعة عامةPresent continuous
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
مدرسة علا الألكترونية :: مرحلة الثانوية :: الصف الثالث ادبي :: اللغة الانجليزية-
انتقل الى: