مدرسة علا الألكترونية

توجيهية تربوية تعليمية
 
الرئيسيةاليوميةس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
مدرسة علا الألكترونية ترحب بكم

شاطر | 
 

 Grammar Revision Programme PART ONE

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 326
نقاط : 953
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/02/2012

مُساهمةموضوع: Grammar Revision Programme PART ONE   الإثنين مارس 05, 2012 6:35 pm

Grammar Revision Programme PART ONE
مدرسة علا الالكترونية
VERBS
* Verbs are words that tell us about actions and states.
1- The actions are verbs which can be seen: run, go, play.
2- The states are verbs which can not be seen: feel, understand.
* There are three kinds of verbs:
1- Ordinary verbs (verbs to do): go, feel.
2- Auxialary ( helping)verbs: am, was , has.
3-Modal verbs:can, must, may.
Tenses
* The tenses are the times at which the verbs happen.
1- The Present Simple Tense
A- It describes actions and states which are:
* Factual – The earth rotates round the sun. * Regular – I go to school every day.
B- Formation:
1- With verb to be:
I + am + complement.
He / She / It + is + complement.
You / They / We + are + complement.
1-The Nile (be).................the longest river in Africa.
2-Children (be)..................beautiful.
3-I (be)...................always ready.
2- With verb to have:
I / you / They / We + have + complement.
He / She / It + has + complement.
1-Ali always (have).............................. a cup of tea in the morning.
2-Students usually (have)........................ alot of lessons to study before exams.
3- With verb to do:
I / You / They / We + verb ( infintive ) + complement.
1- We (go)........................ to school every day except Friday.
He / She / It + verb + (s/ es) + complement .
*Add (es) if the verb ends by: s, o , ch , sh or x.
2- It always (rain)................................. alot in August.
3- She usually (wash)............................ her clothes at weekends. C- Adverbs that tell us about the tense:In general we call them adverbs of frequency which includes: always , usually , sometimes, often , every + time ( every week ), once , twice , seldom , rarely , generally , normally , occassionally and never.
D- The negative sentence:
1- With verb to be:
Subject + am / is / are + not + complement.
Mona (not be).............................always late.


2- With verb to do:
Subject + don’t / doesn’t + verb (infinitive) + complement.
We usually (not go).............................. to school on holiday.
Ali (not drive)................................... his car to work every day.
3- With verb to verb to have:
Subject + doesn’t / don’t + have + complement
I sometimes (not have).......................................... dinner at home.
Reem usually (not have).................................... a cup of tea in the morning.
E- The question:
1- With verb to be
Am / Is / Are + subject + complement?
Why (be)........................ he usually late?
2- With verb to do:
Does / Do + subject + verb (infinitive) + complement?
When .................... you (get).................. up every day?
................... he regularly (visit)................... his relatives?
3- With verb to have:
Does / Do + subject + have + complement?
When ................ you usually (have).......................... your breakfast?
F- The passive rule: Object + am/is/are + verb (p.p) + complement.
1- Cotton (grow)…………………………in the Gezira.
2- The Present Continuous
A- It describes actions which:
1- are happening at the moment of speaking.
We (study)..................................................... grammar now.
2- are happening at the period of speaking.
My grand father (stay).............................................. with us these days.
3- will happen at an arranged time in the near future.
I (go)....................................... out tonight.
B- Formation:
I + am + verb + ing
He / She / It + is + verb + ing
You / They / We + are + verb + ing
C- Adverbs and expresions that mark the tense:
Now – At this moment – At present – Thesedays – Tonight – Nowadays – Look – Look out – Listen – Be careful – Be quiet – Be attention – After now .
D- The negative sentence:
Subject + am / is / are + not + verb + ing
I (not work)............................................. these days.
E- The question: Am / Is / Are + subject + verb + ing + complement ?
What ...................... he (do)....................... now?
F- The passive rule: Object + am/is/are + being + verb (p.p) + complement
Millions of trees (plant)……………………………..these days.
I- Verbs that tell about states such as: like, understand, know………….etc and the verb to be are not used in the present continuous. When we find them with present continuous markers we put them in the present simple.
Ahmed (not be)………………………..at home now.
…………..you (like)…………………going out these days?

3-The Past Simple Tense
A- It describes actions or states which started and finished before now.
B- Formation:
1- With verb to be:
Subject + was / were + complement.
The weather (be).................... hot yesterday.
We (be)......................... busy last week.
2- With verb to have:
Subject + had + complement.
They (have)....................... their supper late last night.
3- With verb to do:
* If the verb is regular add (ed).
They (travel)................................. to Egypt a month ago.
* If the verb is irregular , write its past simple form.
The students (leave)................................ the school before an hour.
C- Adverbs and expressions that mark the tense:
Yesterday – Last + time (last month) – Ago – Just now – Before now – Once upon a time.
D- The ngative sentence: 1- With verb to be:
Subject + was / were + not + complement.
Ali (not be).............................. at school yesterday.
2- With verb to do:
Subject + didn’t + verb (infinitive) + complement.
Our team (not play)............................... well last match.
3- With verb to have:
Subject + didn’t + have + complement.
I (not have)............................................ my supper last night.
E- The question:
1- With verb to be:
Was / Were + subject + complement?
Why (be) ................. you late last week?

2- With verb to do:
Did + subject + verb (infinitive) + complement?
................ you (sleep)........................... well last night?
3- With verb to have:
Did + subject + have + complement?
Where ......................... they (have).......................... their supper yesterday?

F- The passive rule: Object + was/were + verb (p.p) + complement.
Many univercities (build)…………………………..in 1994.
4-The Past Continuous Tense
A- It describes two actions which:
* happened at the same time in the past.
While the mother (cook)..................................... her baby (sleep)........................
* happened in the past but one of them started before another.
I (study)......................................... when the telephone (ring)..............................
B- Formation:
Subject + was / were + verb + ing
C- Adverbs that mark the tense:
While – As – When .
D- The negative sentence:
Subject + was / were + not + verb + ing
The students ( not speak ).................................... when the teacher (enter).......... the class.
E- The question:
Was / Were + subject + verb + ing + complement?
What ................... you (do)................ when it rained last night?
F- The passive rule: Object + was/were + being + verb (p.p).
A lot of noise (make)……………………..when the teacher entered the class.

5-The Present PerfectTense
A- It describes actions and states which started in the past but have results in the present.
B- Formation: 1- With verb to be
I / You / They / We + have + been + complement.
He / She / It + has + been + complement.
They (be)........................................... neighbours for years.
Ali (Be)........................................... to Juba for the first time in his life.
2- With verb to have:
I / You / They / We + have + had + complement.
He / She / It + has + had + complement.
Mona (have)....................................... alot of work this year.
I ............................ just (have)...................... my breakfast.
3- With verb to do:
Subject + has / have + verb ( P. P ).
The bus ..................... already ( leave )........................... .
I .................... just ( recieve )................................ a letter from abroad.
C- Adverbs that mark the tense:Since – for – recently – lately – this + a period of time ( this month ) – just – already – never – yet – ever .
D- The negative sentence:
Subject + has / have + not + Verb ( P.P ).
I (not see)............................................. my friend for an age.
E- The question:
Have / Has + subject + verb ( P. P ) + complement?
What .................. you (do)....................... this week?
................ she ever (be)...................... abroad?
................ they just (have)..................... their test?
F- The passive rule: Object + has/have + been + verb (p.p).
This desk (reair)……………………………..three times this year.
6-The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
A-It describes actions which started in the past but are continuing in the present.
B- Formation:
Subject + has / have + been + verb + ing + complement.

C- Adverbs that mark the tense:
Since – For – This + a period of time ( this week ).
D- The nagative sentence:
Subject + has / have + not + been + verb + ing + complement.
E- The question:
Has / Have + subject + been + verb + ing + complement?

Examples:
1- That man (wait).......................................... for the bus for ten minutes.
2- These students (answer).......................................... the examination since 8a.m. but no one ............................ yet (finish).........................
3- Look , these boys (swim)..................................... for half an hour.
4- What ..................you (do)............................ this hour?
7- The past perfect tense
A- It describes two actions happened in the past but one of them started and finished before another.
B- Formation: 1- With verb to be
Subject + had + been + complement.
She (be)..................................... out , when I (phone)........................ her house.
2- With verb to have:
Subject + had + had + complement.
Ali (have).................................... alot of bad luck before he reached the school.
3- With verb to do:
subject + had + verb (p. p).
The teacher (leave)................................. the school before we came.
C- Adverbs that mark the tense:
Before – After – When – Already – just – never .
D- The negative sentence:
Subject + had + not + verb (p.p) + complement.
Ali (not be)........................................ at home when I went there yesterday.
E- The question:
Had + subject + verb (p.p) + complement?
Exceptions:
1- When is used for the past perfect if:
* There are two verbs but one of them is verb to be.
Mona (be)............................. ill when we visited her.
* There are more than two clauses.
When we (arrive).......................... the school , we (discover).............................that the bell (ring)...............................
2- Already / just / never are used for the past perfect if they come after a clause in the past simple.
You were unlucky , the shop ............................ already (close)......................................
She was unlucky the plane ………………..just (take)………………….off.
F-The passive rule: Object + had + been + verb (p.p).
The work (do)………………………………when the sky rained.
8- The Simple Future Tense
A- It describes actions and states which will happen after now.
B- Formation:
I / We + shall + verb (infinitive) + complement.
He / She / It / You / They + will + verb (infinitive) + complement
I (visit)…................................ my grand parents next holiday.
He (be)…............................ busy tomorrow.
The headmaster (have)…............................. breakfast with us after thrree days.
C- Adverbs that mark the tense:
Tomorrow – Next + time (next month) – After now – Soon .
D- The negative sentence:
Subject + will / shall + not + verb (infinitive) + complement.
Will not = won’t / shall not = shan’t
They (not have)…............................... a test next week.
The weather (not be)…............................ cold tomorrow.
She (not see)………………………………the film tonight.
E- The question:
Will / Shall + subject + verb (infinitive) + complement ?
Where …................. you (spend)…...................... your next holiday?
F- The passive rule: Object + will/shall + be + verb ( p.p)
The streets (decoorate)………………………………..by next December.


9- The future continuous
A- It describes actions or states which: 1-talk about something which will be in progress at a time in the near future.
Dno't phone me at 8.00. I will be doing my homework then.
2- talk about things in the future which are already planned, or which are partof a regular routine.
We will be sitting for the examinations next March.
B- Formation:
I / you / he / she / it / we / they + will + be + verb + ing + complement.

C- The negative sentence:
Subject + will + not + verb + ing + complement.
I will not be working tomorrow, because I will be on a holiday.
D- The question:
Will + subject + be + verb + ing + complement ?
Where will people be living in the next century?

10- The conditional sentences
* They are sentences which happen according to certain conditions:
A- Probable. B- Improbable / imaginary. C- Impossible.
* The conditional sentence has two clauses
If clause Main clause
If (1):Present simple/continuous will / shall / can / may + verb (infinitive)
1f (2): Past simple would / should / could / might + verb (inf)
If (3): Past perfect would / should / could / might+ have (PP).

Examples:
A- Put verbs in brackets in their correct forms:
1- If we (be)………………………………….. lucky, we can catch the plane.
2- If they came early, they (meet)…………………………. the head master.
3- If I (have)………………………… a lot of money, I would have bought a car.
11 -The clause of time
It is introduced by using the following words:
As soon as , after , when , as , before , immediately , since , till / until , whenever , no sooner than , hardly………when.
* In the time clause the verb is in the present simple.
* In the main clause the verb is in the future.
1- I (send)…………………… you a telegram as soon as I hear some good news.
2- When she (come)……………….. I will meat her at the airport.
3- After we finish, we (go)………………………… out.
12 - The question Tag
1- It is a short question which is put at the end of the sentence.
* If the sentence is positive we add a negative tag.
Sudan is a big country, isn't it?
* If the sentence is negative we add a positive tag.
They are not always busy, are they?
2- The tag of the auxiliary verbs:
is – isn't / are – aren't / was – wasn't / were – weren't / can – can't - must – mustn't / has – hasn't / had – hadn't / will – won't / shall – shan't - would – wouldn't. 3- The tag of the present simple:
* If the verb takes (s), the tag is (doesn't + pronoun).
She takes the bus to school every day, doesn't she?
*If the verb is infinitive, the tag is (don't + pronoun).
We go to school every day, don't we?
4- The tag of the past simple with verb to do is (didn't + pronoun).
Our team played well last match, didn't it?
5- Exceptions:
A- The tag of (I am) is (aren’t I).
B- The tag of (let's) is (shall we).
I am always busy,……………………?
Let's play a game,…………………….?
13- Deduction: must, can't
1- We use must in deduction to say that we are sure about something.
It isnot very warm and you are not wearing a coat. You must be cold. ( I am sure that you are cold) .
2- We use can't (not mustn't) as the negative of must in this meaning. We use can't in deduction to say that something is impossible.
Ali was here a moment ago, so he can't be far away.
3- Note the form: must / can't + be + verb + ing.
You have been working hard all day. You must be feeling tired. ( I am sure that you are feeling tired.)
Simon has bought two tickets for the concert, so he can't be going on his own. ( It is impossible that he is going on his own) .

14- The conditional sentences
* They are sentences which happen according to certain conditions:
A- Probable. B- Improbable / imaginary. C- Impossible.
* The conditional sentence has two clauses:
If clause Main clause
If (1):Present simple/continuous will / shall / can / may + verb (infinitive)
1f (2): Past simple would / should / could / might + verb (inf)
If (3): Past perfect would / should / could / might+ have (PP).
Examples:
A- Put verbs in brackets in their correct forms:
1- If we (be)………………………………….. lucky, we can catch the plane.
2- If they came early, they (meet)…………………………. the head master.
3- If I (have)………………………………. a lot of money, I would have bought a car.
Previous Years Examinations
1- March (2000)
1- They (wait)…………………………………………since early this morning.
2- How ……………….you (go)………………to shool every day?
3- That factory ( build )…………………………..ten years ago.
4- If they (move)………………………………..now, they will catch the flight.
5- These (be)……………….beautiful pictures.
6- Yesterday while I (walk)………………… with my father, we (meet)………
a blind man. I (not know)………………………..who that man (be)……….,
but my father told me his name after he (go)……………………………….

2- March (2001)
1- Don't worry , dear Layla! The children (play)………………………at this moment. They (take)……………….already………………….their tea and do not need anything. I always (give)…………… Nawal some bread and butter.Her brother (like)……………….hot milk and cakes. The cakes (be)………...in the kitchen, but don't let them eat too many.
2- She (not work)……….………………………..hard, did she?
3- While we (pass)………………………an old farm, we saw a strange object. No one knew what it (be)…………………..
4- The Islamic Bank (open)……………………a branch in our town next year.

3- March (2002)
1- If I (be)…………………him, I wouldn't buy that car.
2- We (do)…………………………………this work for the last three years.
3- They usually (not spend)……………………………their holiday here.
4- While he (try)….................... to reach the top of the wall, he (fall)……….
down and (break)……………………his hand.
5- You ( not catch)……………………… the bus unless you (hurry)……………
6- When I reached the airport yesterday, I (remember)………………………that
I (leave)……………………………my ticket at home.

4- March (2003)
1- My brother (stand)……………………… there when the tree (fall)……….… yesterday.
2- According to the weather forecast, tomorrow (not be)………………very cold.
3- you look tired. If I (be)………… you, I (have)………………………some rest.
4- When I (come)………………… out of the school yesterday, I (find)…………
that my bicycle (disappear)………………………………………
5- She (wait)…………………………for the bus at this bus station for half an hour every day.
6- The news (never be)…………………………………good for the last few days.

5- June ( 2003)
1- He generally (wear)…………….. a black suit, but today (wear)………………
a light one.
2- I (see)………… him a month ago, but I (not see)………………… him since.
3- I (send)………………… you a telegram as soon as I (hear)………… the good news.
4- She (go)………………… to school yesterday when it (start)…………to rain.
5- I returned the book to the library after I (finish)…………………… reading it.
6- She (read)………………………… for the last two hours, but she (not finish)
…………………………..half of the story yet.

6- March 2004
1- Look out of the window! Can you see what (happen)…………………………?
2- I didn't meet Ali last night. If I (meet)…………………………… him, I (warn) ……………………………………….him.
3- Many universities (build)……………………………….in 1994.
4- My brother (be)………… lucky yesterday. He (just leave)……………………
the house when it (collapse)…………………………
5- The director has just arrived. He (see)………………… you if you (go)……...
in now.
6-……………………………………(you / visit) your relatives regularly?
7- They (watch)…………………… TV yesterday when the bell (ring)…………

7- March 2005
1- While Ali (run)………………… to school yesterday, a dog (attack)…………
him. He picked a stone and (throw)……………… it at the dog. But when he got
to school, the first lesson (already start)…………………………………
2- My mother (visit)……………… Cairo next month. But I (never be)…………
there.
3- Ahmed (not be)………………… at home now. He must be (help)………………..
his father.
4- My friend (go)…………………………shopping yesterday.
5- If the fisherman catches a lot of fish, he (sell)……………………it in the market.
Part Two: Suffixes and Prefixes
* The suffixes are the letters which added to the end of the word.
* The following table shows the most common suffixes used in the (Spine Series):
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs
ment-ence – ion- ance – able- ish-al-ous-ive- ize-ed ly
tion- sion – al- ssion – ial-ic-y-ing-ed-less- en-ing
ing- ness – or – ity – er ian-ful-ible-ative
ture – ty – th – edge –
dom – ant – ure
A-Nouns
1- Nouns ending (ment):
Develop-employ-environ-improve-adverise-invest-enrolt-manage-encourage-amaze -equip- agree
2-Nouns ending in (tion):
Produce-reduce-inform-occupy-admire-define-compose- exploit-privatize-explore-modern-recommend-invite-prepare- solve-expect-plant-preserve-organize-modernize-prepare-recognize-
3-Nouns ending in (ion):
Participate-co-operate-destruct-prevent-locate-congratulate-digest-decorate-exavate-admit-abbreviate-adopt-graduate-promote-accommodate-impress-educate-distribute-celebrate-confuse
4-Nouns ending in (sion):
Erode / erosion –expand / expansion –provide / provision –revise / revision -televise / television -
5-Nouns ending in (ssion):
Permit / permission – submit / submission –
6- Nouns ending in (ence):
Defend / defence – differ / difference – absent / absence – violent / violence –depend / dependence.
7-Nouns ending in (ance):
Importance – romance – acceptance
8-Nouns ending in (ness):
Aware- happy – fit – careless – remote – lonely - lazy - kind
9- Nouns ending in (ity):
Able – major– electric – mobile – accessible– responsible– hospital– prosper– available– punctual – modern– possible - real – national – necessary – active .
10-Nouns ending in (y/ ty):
Difficult / difficulty – honest / honesty – loyal / loyalty – vary / variety – poor / poverty /unite / unity – safe / safety – cruel / cruelty –
11-Nouns ending in (dom):
Free / freedom – king / kingdom – wise / wisdom
12- Nouns ending in (or/er):
Act / actor – sail / sailor – farm / farmer – produce / producer – play / player
13-Nouns ending in (th):
Heal / health – true / truth – grow / growth – long / length –
14-Nouns ending in (ing):
Wed – wedding / save – saving / earn – earning / greet – greeting / harvest – harvesting / process – processing.
15-Nouns ending in (ture/ ure):
Furnish – furniture / please – pleasure

B- Adjectives
1- Adjectives ending in (ful):
Use – faith – truth – success – help – thank –care –joy –beauty- wonder –power – peace – revenge
2-Adjectives ending (ive):
Effect – expense – information – digest –detect – talk –aggress- attract- act
3-Adjective ending in (ous):
Fame – poison – continue – suspense –mystery –superstition –nerve- anxiety- vary- mystery
4-Adjective ending in (able/ ible):
Love – move –renew –value- laugh – believe – comfort – fashion
5-Adjectives ending in (ic):
Economy / economic – drama / dramatic – romance / romantic – energy / energetic
6- Adjectives ending in (al):
Nation / national – region / regional – education / educational – agriculture / agricultural – locate / local – physic / physical – nature / natural – form / formal culture / cultural – practice / practical – origin / original – economic / economical – tradition / traditional
7-Adjectives / Nouns of nationalities:
When you are making Adjectives and Nouns of nationalities and jobs, remember they have different endings (suffixes):
They could end in: (ese) – (ch) –( ish) –(ian) – (an) or( ist )
China/ Chinese / Sudan / Sudanese / Japan/ Japanese /France /French / Britain /British / England / English / America / American / Brazil / Brazilian Africa/ African / Europe / European / politics / politician / archeology / archeologist.
8-Adjectives ending in (y):
Health – healthy / rain – rainy / wind – windy / risk – risky / dirt – dirty
9-Adjectives ending in (ing):
Excite – exciting / interest – interesting / increase – increasing

C- Verbs
1- Verbs ending in (ize):
Modern – modernize / private – privatize / economy – economize / special / specialize – real / realize
2-Verbs ending in (en):
Threat – threaten / deep – deepen
D- Adverbs
Proper – properly / bitter – bitterly / traditional – traditionally / quiet – quietly / heavy – heavily / original – originally / absolute – absolutely / anxious – anxiously / instant – instantly / like – likely / extreme – extremely / careful – carefully.


2000 Examination:
Use the word given in brackets at the end of each sentence to form a word that fits in the space given. You can use the following endings:

(-ing), (-ment), (-ive ), (-ity), (-able), (-ize), (-ness)

1- We must ……………………………………our style of life. (MODERN)
2- These are very ………………………………………………. jewels. (VALUE)
3- This program is ………………………………………… (INFORM)
4- Don't live for ………………………………………. only. (ENTERTAIN)
5- Food is a …………………………………….. of life. (NECESSARY)
6- I don't like his …………………………………………………….. (LAZY)
7- She does not take part in any school ………………………… (ACTIVE)
8- These chairs are ………………………………….. (COMFORT)
9- This book is not worth ……………………………………….. (READ)
10- He has ………………………………… in chemistry. (SPECIAL)
2001 Examination:
Use the word given in brackets at the end of each sentence to form a word that fits in the space given. You can use the following endings:

(-ly), (-ous), (-y ), (-dom), (-ful), (-ness), (-ship), (-ity), (-ion), (-ment )

1- He ran………………………………. because he was late. (QUICK)
2- A……………………………. driver doesn't make accidents. (CARE)
3- Last night the …………………….. suddenly went out, so we had to light candles. (ELECTRIC)
4- The place is ………………………. It wasn't cleaned yesterday. (DIRT)
5- A mosquito net is a good …………………….. against malaria. (PROTECT)
6- Countries which are under foreign rule usually fight for their ………………. (FREE)
7- We thanked the man for his …………………………….and went away. (KIND)
2002 Examination :
Use the words given in capitals at the end of each space to form a word which fits in the space given. You can use the following endings:

(-CE) , (-IAN) , (-OUS ), (-ISH),(-FUL)

Ismail Al Azhari was a …………………… (FAME ) leader. Together with other …………………………… (POLITICS) he fought against the …………………… (BRITAIN). Their efforts were………………………………. (SUCCEED) because they are resulted in the ……………………………. (INDEPENDENT) of the Sudan.

March 2003 Examination :
Use the word given in brackets at the end of each sentence to form a word that fits in the space given. You can use the following endings:

(-ion), (-ful), (-ous ), (-ment), (-able)

1- Diseases like malaria need…………………………………. (TREAT)
2- He is still looking for a …………………………….. gift for his wife. (SUIT)
3- We enjoyed the party. We had a …………………….. time there. (WONDER)
4- Some drugs are very ………………………………………………... (POISON)
5- The government will take ……………………… against unemployment. (ACT)
June 2003 Examination:
Use the words given in capitals at the end of each sentence to form a word which can fit in the spaces given. You can use the following endings:

(-ous) , (-ive) , (-tion ), (-ful), (-sion)

1- Planes are the most ………………………… means of transport. (EXPENSE)
2- Trees protect the soil from ……………………………………. (ERODE)
3- We must keep ………………… drugs out of the reach of children. (POISON)
4- The police are responsible for the …………………….. of crime. (PREVENT)
5- The results of space research may be ………………. to us in the future. (USE)
2004 Examination :
Use the words given in capitals at the end of each sentence to form a word which fits in the space given. You can use the following endings:

(-ing) , (-able) , (-ive ), (-er),(-ness) , (-ment), (-tion),(-ly)
1- His …………………………..was great when he passed his exams. (HAPPY)
2- Doctors say ……………………………. is better than cure. (PROTECT)
3- The most popular form of……………………………… in my village is singing and story-telling. (ENTERTAIN)
4- Vitamins keep us healthy and ………………………………... (ACT)
5- He is rich. He is living an easy and ………………………… life. (COMFORT)
6- There is an …………………………….amount of pollution in the world today. (INCREASE)
7- He is a good football ……………………………………. (PLAY)
8- She was driving …………………………………. through the crowded streets. (CAREFUL) .
Prefixes
The prefixes are the letters which are added to the beginning of the word.
The following table shows the most common prefixes used in the (SPINE ) series.
Verbs Nouns Adjectives
En – dis – fore – over – re – pre – co Dis – il – en – pre – mal – co – by In – im – il – un –– self – well – over

Verbs endings in:
En Dis Fore Over Re Pre Co
encourage disagree foresee overtake reconsider preocuppy cooperate
enjoy disappear forecast overcome rebuild preteach coeducate

Nouns ending in:
dis mal Il En Pre Co By
disagreement malnutrition illiteracy engagement preeducation cooperation byproduct

Adjectives ending in:
Im In Un Over Well Il Self
impractical Informal uneducated overcrowded wellkown illegal selftaught


Part Three: Re – Writing Sentences
1-The passive voice
1- The sentence can be active or passive * The active sentence is the sentence which is governed by its subject.
Ali plays football every day.
Who plays football? Ali does, so the sentence is active because it is governed by its subject.
* The passive sentence is the sentence which is governed by its object.
Football is played every day.
Who plays football every day? We don't know so the sentence is passive.
2- To change the sentence from the active form to the passive form:
* Replace the subject by the object * Adopt the passive rule of the tense in the active sentence.
Tense Passive rule
1- Present simple Object + am / is / are + verb (P.P) + C
2- Present continuous Object + am / is / are + being + verb (P.P) +C
3- Past simple Object + was / were + verb (P.P) + C.
4- Past continuous Object + was / were + being + verb (P.P)+ C
5- Present Perfect Object + has / have + been + verb (P.P) + C.
6- Past perfect Object + had + been + verb (P.P) + C.
7- Modal verbs Object + modal + be + verb (P.P)+ C.

* The modal verbs are: will / would / shall / should / can / could / may / might / must / had to.
Examples:
Complete sentence (B), so that it has a similar meaning to sentence (A), using the words in the margin:
1- A- Arsenal beat Liverpool at football.
Beaten B- Liverpool …………………………………….. at football.
2- We must look after our forest.
Looked B- Our forests………………………………
3-A- Young people should stop smoking.
Give B- Smoking …………………………………………………….
4- A- Khalid did not buy a car last week.
Bought B- No car …………………………………………….. last week.
5- A- Students never watch T.V. during the examination.
Watched- B- No T.V……………………………………..during the examination.
2- The conditional sentences
* They are sentences which happen according to certain conditions:
A- Probable. B- Improbable / imaginary. C- Impossible.
* The conditional sentence has two clauses:
If clause Main clause
If (1):Present simple/continuous will / shall / can / may + verb (infinitive)
1f (2): Past simple would / should / could / might + verb (inf)
If (3): Past perfect would / should / could / might+ have (PP).
Exceptions:
*Unless = if not.
1- A- If you don't study hard, you won't find a seat at university.
Unless B- ………………………….. you won't find a seat at university.
2- A- If she didn't come, I should phone her.
Unless B- I should phone her………………………………………………
* Had replaces If (3) to emphasize impossibility.
1-A- If they had played well they would have won the match.
Had B- ………………………………… they would have won the match.
* Building conditional sentences:
1- I can't visit you because I don't have enough time.
If- B- ………………………………………… I can visit you.
2- A- I can't run because I am tired.
If – B- …… ……………………………………..I can run.

4- The Direct and Indirect speech
1- The direct speech is the speech which is said by the speaker himself.
"I am going out", said Ali.
2-The indirect speech tells us about the speaker's words said by another person.
Ali said that he was going out.
3- The direct speech has three forms:
A- Sentence B- question C- order / command
4- To change the sentence and question from direct to indirect speech:
* Omit the inverted commas
* Change the tense:

Present simple Past simple
Present continuous Past continuous
Present perfect Past perfect
Past simple Past perfect
Past continuous Past perfect continuous
Simple modal Past modal

Will – would / shall – should / can – could / may – might / must – had to /
* Change the pronouns:
I ………… he / she me…… him / her my ……….. his / her
You…… I / he / she / they You……him / her / them /me Your …my/ his / her / their
* Change the adverbs:
Now …………then / here ……… there / this………. that
Yesterday …………. the day before / Tomorrow ………….. the next day
These ……………….. those.
Examples: A- The sentence
A- " I was absent yesterday", said Ahmed.
Had – B- Ahmed said that………………………………………………….
A- " I will score a high result", said the girl.
Would – B- The girl …………………………………. a good result.
A-" Mona was studying when the telephone rang", said Ali.
Been – B- Ahmed ……………………………………………………………
B- The question
A- Questions with question words:
asked + object + question word + subject + verb (past form) + complement.
1- A- "What is the time now, Ali?" said Mona.
Asked B- Mona…………………………………………………………………. 2- A- "How old are you Mona?", said the doctor.
Asked- B- The doctor……………………………………………………………
3- A- "Why were late yesterday?" the teacher said to Ahmed and Ali.
Asked- B- The teacher…………………………………………………………..
B- Questions with auxiliaries:
asked + object + if / wether + subject + verb (past form) + complement.
1- A- "Can you drive a car, Amin?", the chairperson.
Asked – B- The chairperson……………………………………………………..
2-A- "Were you sleeping when it rained yesterday, Sarah?", said Fatima.
Asked- B- Fatima ………………………………….. , when it rained yesterday.
3- A-"Do you like fishing, Khalid?" said Omer.
If – B- Omer wondered ………………………………………………………….
C- The order / command:
A- Positive order:
Ordered + object + to + words in brackets
1- A- "Study hard", the teacher said to the students.
Ordered- B- The teacher…………………………………………………………
B- Negative order:
Ordered + not + to + words in brackets.
1- A- "Don't make noise, Ahmed?", said the class keeper.
Ordered- B- The class keeper…………………………………………………………..

5- The Clause of Result To build the clause of result we use: so, such, too, enough.
so + adjective + that
1- The town is so crowded that I can't drive easily.
such + adjective + plural noun + that
1- They are such good players that they won the match.
such + a + adjective + singular noun + that
1- Sudan is such a big country that you can't visit every where easily.
such + an + adjective (starts with a, e , i , o , u) + singular noun + that
2- Grammar is such an easy section that every one can answer it.
too + adjective + to + verb (infinitive).
* It is always a negative in meaning.
1- Everest Mountain is too high to climb(This means no one can climb the mountain ).
Adjective + enough + that + complement / to + verb (infinitive)
* It is always positive in meaning.
1- The day is fine enough that we shall go out(This sentence means we should go out).

6- The Clause Of Comparison
* There are three degrees of comparison:


1 Positive 2- comparative 3- superlative
Young younger youngest
Interesting more interesting most interesting
Good better best


* In the positive degree, the adjective is in its original form.
* To form the comparative degree, we add (er) to the adjective if the adjective has one syllable: small: smaller / big: bigger / smart: smarter
If the adjective has more than two syllables, add (more) before the adjective:
Beautiful: more beautiful / exciting: more exciting
* To form the superlative degree we add (est) to the adjective if the adjective has one syllable: small: smallest / big: biggest / smart: smartest
if the adjective has more than two syllables, add ( most ) before the adjective:
Beautiful: most beautiful / interesting: most interesting
* Irregular adjectives:
Positive Comparative Superlative

Good better best
Bad worse worst
Little less least
Much more most
Many more most
Far farther (D) / further (D/T) farthest / farthest
Old older / elder (family members) oldest / eldest
* Constructions with the comparison:

as + adjective ( in the positive degree) + as
1- Fatima runs as fast as Mona.
2- British music is not as enjoyable as Sudanese music.
3- My brother is as good as I am at Math.

adjective + er + than
1- Sudan is (big)........................................... than Egypt.
2- My brother is (old)............................... than I am.

More + adjective + than
1- The Internet is (informative).......................................... than the digital T.V.

Prefer................................... to / like............................. more than
1-A- I like villages more than towns.
Prefer B- I........................................................ towns.

The + adjective + est
1-The Nile is the (long).................................................... river in Africa.

The + most + adjective
1- Jebel Mara is the (beautiful)............................................. place in the Sudan.

Examples:
Complete sentence (B), so that it has a similar meaning to sentence (A), using the words in the margin:
1-A- Mona is clever. Fatima is equally clever.
As .B- Mona is.........................................................................................................
2-A- Khalid runs faster than Ahmed.
As-B- Ahmed doesn't run............................................................................................
3-A- I prefer playing football to watching it.
Like-B- I ............................................................................... watch it.
4- A- Sudan is bigger than Egypt.
Small-B- Egypt is.................................................................................................
5-A- Cities are more polluted than villages.
Clean- B- Villages are.............................................................................................
6-A- Reem is taller than Reham and Raga.
The- B- Reem is........................................... girl of the three.
7-A- Planes have more seats than buses.
As- B- Buses don’t have............................................................................................
8-A- I don’t like Pepsi as much as Miranda.
Than-A- I like Miranda....................................................................................................

7- The Clause Of Concession
We build the clause of concession by using: but, yet, however, despite, even if , even though, although, .
Although + subject + verb + complement
A- They continued playing despite of the rain.
Although-B- They continued playing……………………………………………
We build the phrase of concession by using inspite of:
In spite of + noun / gerund / being + adjective / possessive adjective + noun
A- They work hard but they earned little money.
In spite of-B- ………………………………….. they earned little money.
A- He is busy but he spends some time with his family.
In spite of-B-……………………………… he spends some time with his family.
1- A- Gold is expensive but a lot of women still buy it.
Although- B- ………………………………………… a lot of women still buy it.

8-The Relative Pronouns
* The pronouns are the words which are used to replace repeated nouns.
Ali is an active boy. Ali wakes up early every morning.
Ali is an active boy. He wakes up early every morning.
* There are two kinds of pronouns: A- Personal pronouns: (he, she, it…………………….etc)
B-Relative pronouns: (who, which, whose……………..etc)
Forms of Personal pronouns:
Reflexive/Emphasizing pronouns Possessive pronouns Possessive adjectives Object pronouns Subject pronouns
Myself Mine My Me I
Himself His His Him He
Herself Hers Her Her She
Itself Its Its It It
Yourself / Yourselves Yours Your You You
Themselves Theirs Their Them They
Ourselves Ours Our Us We
* Notice:
1- Subject pronouns always come before verbs.
2- Object pronouns always come after verbs and prepositions.
3-Possesive adjectives always come before nouns and they refer to the thing possessed.
4-Possesive pronouns come at the end of the sentence or the clause and they refer to the possessor.
5-A- Reflexive pronouns always come after verbs and prepositions but here the subject and object are the same
B - Emphasizing pronouns always come after the subject to emphasize it.

B- Forms of Relative pronouns
Irrational Rational Uses
Which / That Who / That Subject
Which Whom Object
Whose Whose Possession
Examples: 1-A-Mona read about a boy. The boy can speak four languages.
Who-B- Mona read about a boy,……………………………………………………
2- A- Ahmed bought a new house. The new house has four flours.
Which-B- Ahmed bought……………………………………………………………
3-A-Fatima is my aunt. I usually visit her at weekend.
Whom-B- Fatima is my aunt………………………………………………………
4-A-Jamal is my friend. I go to school with him everyday.
Whom-B-Jamal is……………………………………………………………………
5-A-Hassan bought a new car. He drives it to work every morning.
Which-B-Hassan bought……………………………………………………………
6-A-Sudan produces petroleum. Its exports bring hard currency.
Whose-B-Sudan produces petroleum………………………………………………
7-Martin is a rich man. Martin's house is big and new.
Whose-B-Martin is …………………………………………………………………
* For the place (where) replaces (there).
1-A-That is an old basic school. I was educated there. Where-B-That is the old basic school………………………………………………
9- The quantity and number expressions

Number Expressions Quantity Expressions
1- For small numbers we use:
Few / a few 1- For small quantities we use:
Little / a little
2- For medium numbers we use:
Some and several. 2-For medium quantities we use:
Some.
3-For big numbers we use:
Many, a lot of, a great number of. For big quantities we use:
Much, a lot of, a great deal of, a great amount of, a great quantity of.
Examples:
1-A-Luckily many people were saved in the accident yesterday.
Few-B-Luckily …………………………… were killed in the accident yesterday 2-A-Please use little water. Much-B-Please don't use……………………………………………… A-Sadly few people passed the driving test.
Many- B- Sadly, …………………………………….. failed the driving test.

10- Obligation and necessity
We use:( must) and (have to) to express obligation or necessary.
1- We normally use (must) when the authority comes from the speaker.
You must drive carefully.
2- We normally use (have to) when the authority comes from outside the speaker.
I have to go home by 10 o'clock.
3- Must = allow / forbid.
1- A- You mustn't stay here.
Allow – B- You are not allowed to stay here.
Forbid – B- You are forbidden from staying here.

11- The Imperarive
The imperative can be positive or negative.
For positive imperative we use the infinitive form of the verb:
Examples:
1- (stand)…Stand ………………… up.
2- (open)…Open………………..the door.
For negative imperative we use: Don't + infinitive
(not make noise)don't make noise.
(not touch)…Don't touch…….the paint is wet.
Previous Years Examinations March (2000)
1. A. This book is so interesting that I finished reading it in one day.
Such -B. This is …………………………that I finished reading it in one day.
2. A. I like tea more than coffee.
Prefer- B. I ………………………………………………………….. coffee.
3. A. The first film is better than the second one.
Bad-B. The second film is …………………………… the first one. - A. The second and the third questions are easier than the first one.
Difficult –B- The first question is the …………………………… of the three.
5. A. These books are not enough.
Too- B. These books are ………………………………………………………
6. A. Ali said, “Are these boys enjoying themselves?”
Ask -B. Ali ………………………………………………………………..
7. A. Fatima is taller than Nadia.
As B. Nadia is not ……………………………………………………
8. A. I cannot buy a car because I don’t have money.
If B. ………………………………………………, I would buy a car.
9. A. "Don’t make that noise, Ali".
Order B. He …………………………………………………………………
10. A. This is the house. Fatherless children are kept there.
Where- B. This is ………………………………………are kept.
March (2001)
1. A. Adam planted mango tree.
Planted -B. Mango trees ……………………………………………by Adam.
2. A. The boy is so tired that he can’t run.
Too-B. The boy …………………………………………………………………
3. A. Hassan likes cheese more than butter.
Prefer- B. Hassan ………………………………………………………. butter.
4. A. He ran very fast, but he missed the bus.
Although- B. He missed …………………………………………………………
5. A. TV sets are more expensive than radios.
Cheep -B. Radios ……………………………………....................................
March (2002)
1. A. The company is setting up a new factory over there.
Set- B. A new factory ……………………………………………… over there.
2. A. Ali’s car is cheaper than Hassan’s.
Expensive-B. Hassan’s car is …………………………………… than Ali’s.
3. A. Mothers take good care of their children.
Look-B. Mothers ……………………………………………… their children.
4. A. Please continue your work.
Carry-B. Please ……………………………………………… with your work.
5. A. She didn’t listen carefully to the news.
Pay -B. She didn’t ……………………………………………….. to the news .
March (2003)
1. A. The book was so interesting that I read it twice.
Such- B. It ………………………………………….. that I read it twice.
2. A. “Move that table, Ali.”
Order- B. He ……………………………………………………… that table.
3. A. I wish I could stop smoking.
Give- B. I wish …………………………………………………. smoking.
4. A. The picture was too high for me to reach.
Tall-B.I wasn’t ………………………………………….. to reach the picture.
5. A. They haven’t caused any serious damage.
Do-B. No serious damage …………………………………………………...
June (2003)
1. A. I wasn’t tall enough to reach the picture.
High-B. The picture was ………………………………………for me to reach.
2. A. “Don’t lose hope,” he said.
Told me-B. He …………………………………………………………………
3. A. The local council hasn’t set up any factory.
Build- B. No factory ……………………………………………by the council.
4. A. You will miss the bus unless you hurry. If - B. You will miss the bus ……………………………………………hurry.
5. A. It is such an easy exam that we will all pass. So – B- The exam is…………………………………………. we all pass.

March (2004):
1- A- Deng is strong. Ali is equally strong.
As – B- Ali……………………………………………………. Deng.
2- A- Susan likes fish more than meat.
Prefer – B- Susan ………………………………………………………
3- A- People like John better than Musa and Ali.
Popular – B- John is ………………………………… of the three.
4- A- It was such tasty food that I ate it all.
So- B- The food………………………………………………. all.
5- A- I am going to read it while on holiday.
During- B- I am going to read it………………………………………………
6- A- We went out in spite of the rain.
Although- B- We went out ……………………………………………………
7- A- There was nothing in the cupboard.
Anything- B- There…………………………………………. in the cupboard.

March (2005)
1- A- We will miss the bus if we don't hurry.
Unless (B) …………………………………….we will miss the bus.
2- A- Ali is so young that he can't drive a car.
Too (B) Ali is…………………………………………………………...a car.
3- A- The ambulance has taken the two injured boys to hospital.
Been (B) The two injured boys ……………………………………by the ambulance.
4- A- Athletes must not take drugs.
Allow (B) Athletes…………………………………………………………drugs.
5- A- We went out although it was raining.
In spite of (B) We went out……………………………………………………
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://se-ola.sudanforums.net
 
Grammar Revision Programme PART ONE
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
مدرسة علا الألكترونية :: مرحلة الثانوية :: الصف الثالث ادبي :: اللغة الانجليزية-
انتقل الى: